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In a splendid environment runs the town of Laviano known since ancient times for its rich forest.
With its timber were in fact perfectly constructed ships, also evidenced by the presence of an ancient "collegium dendrophorum" where it impracticable professionals cutting and sale of wood.
This tradition deeply tied to the myths and legends of the forest remained in the culture and folk festivals.
In many, including the distinguished archaeologist Carcano, who was born here, assume that Laviano has been "the most remote" village of Ursentini, Sabina home.
In Roman times throughout the high Valle del Sele was affected by important productive activities, among which stands out, given the considerable presence in the area of large forests that timber for the construction of warships.
This activity has therefore always been a cornerstone of the local economy.
This also highlights from the cult Silvani practiced by local people, as testified by inscriptions dating from the first century AD around and found at some locations in the valley, from a Pescopagano Buccino, a Caposele and at the same town of Laviano.
In this city was reported to light an inscription that mentions the presence of a "collegium dendrophorum" in the area.
Protected from Mount yards, topped by the ruins of a Norman castle, Laviano has mixed over the centuries its case a few building.
On a rocky ridge of limestone that nature to the east sinks in dry gullies at the bottom that a dry stream winds, stood the old bell tower and the majestic temple of the Mother Church.
Laviano has very ancient origins: in "History of the kingdom of the two Sicilies (Naples 1847, Vol. III, pp. 9) N. Corcia traces its beginnings to Sabini and described him as the last village of Ursentini so that the same name "Lavianum" is a term sabino and would mean the feud rustic "Lavia gens" (circa VI-VII sec. BC ). In addition, some archeological finds in the upper valley of the Sele (Laviano, Castelnuovo di Conza, Santomenna) testify to the presence of populations sannitiche since V sec. a. C.
It 'also known that its history is linked to the presence of the woods: just think that in Roman times the carrier was that production of timber and that from the sec. a. C. has established the existence of a "collegium dendrophorum" namely between a corporation whose principal initiatives fell the timber trade in particular species of high trunk, for example, oaks, beeches and the conifers more requests from the market for the carpentry and shipbuilding.
Dendroforo was, in fact, the name of the priest that during the Greek festivals (dendroforie of Dionysus and Demetrius) and then the Roman (of Attis and the Magna Mater) carrying branches of trees.
In Lombard times (from the sixth century AD.) Laviano is, therefore, belonged to Gastaldo of Conza (Conpsa) and rejoined the Principality Citra.
The Lombards also reorganizing the routes between the Tyrrhenian sea (especially from Salerno) and the Adriatic, have opened new paths along the rivers have changed and, consequently, is the role that the development of inland areas and, above all , Some of its centers, such as Conza.
Under the Normans (X - XII sec.) Was created, however, the County Laviano and Conte was also Guglielmo who took the surname "de Laviano" and then "Laviano."
The county has had some importance since it depended on the same level military and administrative surrounding countries.
A Guglielmo happened Oddone then defeated by the Duke of Brienne sent by Pope Innocent III.
Norman dating back to the origins of both the Cathedral Church of Assunta, and the Castle.
The Cathedral Church of Assunta (now totally destroyed) had a significant expansion in the sixteenth century and major restructuring Baroque (eighteenth century)..
For his majesty and richness of artistic (such as the portal into primary and high stone marble inlay worked for) was seen Msgr. Arcangelo Lupoli, Archbishop of Conza from 1818 to 1831, "the most beautiful temple" of his diocese.
Places to See
Precisely because of that will Guglielmo, is located strategically in order to facilitate the observation is that the defense, that is at the top of the promontory on a cliff dell'Olivella peak and valley, with a ditch with stone bridge and a outpost and / or bulwark towards the town, until the earthquake of 1980 was nestled along the hilly slope below.
Originally the village welcomed the people who withdrew from places along the way military and did not suffer disadvantages due to give accommodation and assistance to all authorities of the Kingdom, civilian and military, which traveled to service in that territory.
The Castle, despite having suffered over the centuries extensions and restructuring, had kept up to 1980 mainly the look defensive. Of great value were as sober as majestic, stone portals dating back to the seventeenth century. The elements, collapsed with the earthquake were recently found on the ground.
This castle is included in the system of fortifications Norman and Swabian - from the X century. - Often on defensive existing settlements along the upper valley of the Sele and Basilicata behind the lines of communication with the Puglia.
The medieval incastellamento, involving all regions of the Mediterranean, particularly the inland areas, accounted for such a historic phenomenon, accompanied sometimes even to an improvement in living conditions.
In this period the valley of Sele has become a kind of micro region with unique cultural identity, which in some ways has preserved even in later centuries. I am witness the many fortresses and architectural still present in the area.
In the Middle Ages, moreover, the river Sele has played an important role related to the exchange and transport of goods (including wood useful in the construction of ships).
Following investigations archive shows that in several centuries the territory of Laviano, as well as the castle, were the possessions of various lords and / or feudal lords, including the Marino and Pirro Alemagna of up to the famous "conspiracy of the barons "At the end of the fifteenth century, the family Carafa de Guzman Marra (also known as the principles of Stigliano) and the Royal Court of Spain in the seventeenth century. And the family D'Anna (who has been owned since the late 1696 until 1865 under the Land Registry Onciario of 1753 and that the Muratti 1815).
In the nineteenth century, the castle is now owned by private, while the late'50s was acquired assets in municipal and, consequently, used for public purposes.
Despite the current precarious circumstances Castle Laviano is still a significant testimony of the fortified architecture in the high Sele.
Santa Maria Church of Freedom
The other witness left the country from the Church of Santa Maria della Libera, whose existence in the seventeenth century is demonstrated by archival documents and a recently discovered fresco (1994) in the apse wall.
Currently the Church is a single aisle, a very large company that was intended for the liturgy and worship, a second environment, behind dell'altare, probably by working sacristy.
The altar, which is located at the bottom of the nave, is made of marble inlay work of a very fine bill and the main port side below an inscription "Marcus Maiocchi sumptib suis FFAD 1738."
Overall, the altar is in good condition except for the part basamentale which attacked from moisture, has a typical exfoliation of the stone.
On the side is carved in relief a heraldic emblem representing two lions "addressed" and that lead un'ascia respectively and a branch.
This emblem suggests a religious tradition linked to the exploitation of forest resources and, therefore, to a congregation - guild of lumberjacks.
On the back wall behind the altar there is a fresco depicting quoted a "Madonna and Child" flanked by two saints.
The composition dell'Affresco is divided into three parts: the central scene, the one with the Madonna and child, and the two sides with S. And San Antonio Francis on a blue background from bright tones.
With the work of the utmost urgency executed in 1997 by the Superintendence it was found that the fresco dated 1642 was superimposed on another image, which is always the Madonna and Child, but with damask curtains held back by two angels, and that may iconographic be related to the XIII and XIV.
At the left side for those who enter, is placed another body worked well with marble inlay with floral motifs and with the desired (easily the original location was against the back wall in line with the altar under the fresco).
Even here there is an inscription that reads "DO NOT SIT TIBI GRAVE dicere SEMPER AVE.
The main facade retains a very simple design, the entrance is enriched by both a portal stone from a wooden door finely carved with floral motifs and images of two angels who bear the inscriptions: "ASSUNTA EST MARIA IN caelum" and "DO NOT SIT TIBI GRAVE dicere SEMPER AVE" (why the applicant in writing of the Church and this also sull'architrave stone portal).
This artefact in its architectural simplicity is a testimony of the minor architectural culture and tradition is religious, that popular.
Finally, this ecclesiastical building has remained very impressed in the memory of the people and for the devotion to Our Lady of Assunta (which every August 15 there was carried in procession from the Church mother), both for its particular location outside the original along the road that led to the Mountain (essential resource for the local economy).
The castle and the Church of St. Maria della Libera have suffered considerable damage due to the earthquake of 1980.
The earthquake followed the abandonment, the maximum exposure to the elements and some other shock telluric that have been in recent years (especially in 1996).
Only recently is taking shape for the possibility of restoring the castle, which the Church of Santa Maria della Libera and this would have to Laviano a historical and social invaluable.
Oasis of natural protection
Protected Area Monti EREMITA-MARZANO, WWF reserve that extends over 3,600 hectares; inside how the paths are monitored by CAI (Italian Alpine Club), the reserve is equipped for trekking and mountain biking
For its geomorphological features, wildlife, vegetation, natural and environmental part of the territory is part of Laviano is the Site of Community Interest (SCI) of the Massif of Mount Hermit, defined by the environment ministry on behalf of the European Community, both in reserve Natural Hermit of the Mountains - Marzano of the Campania Region